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Core Competencies


Fellows are required to participate in significant research under the guidance of the faculty, which will foster trainees to develop research skills that can be applied toward a career in academic medicine.


Fellows are expected to develop skills and habits to be able to participate in the education of patients, families, students, fellows, and other health professionals, as documented by evaluations of a fellow’s teaching abilities by faculty and/or learners. The fellow will have a critical role in the education of the Internal Medicine house staff and medical students. 

Patient Care

Fellows must be able to provide patient care that is compassionate, appropriate, and effective for the treatment of health problems and the promotion of health. Fellows are expected to be able to manage primary and secondary hypertension, and implement effective treatment and preventative measures for hypertension.

Fellows will become adept at using standard risk prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham Risk Calculator, to determine global cardiovascular risk for hypertensive patients with or without prevalent cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Commensurate with estimated risk, fellows will apply evidence-based and guideline supported interventions for CVD risk modification. Interventions include aggressive therapeutic lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy to achieve BP targets.

Medical Knowledge

Fellows must demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. Fellows will understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and the neurohormonal derangements in hypertensive patients. They will demonstrate knowledge of medical and non-medical therapies to treat primary and secondary hypertension.

Practice-Based Learning and Improvement

Fellows must demonstrate the ability to investigate and evaluate their care of patients, to appraise and assimilate scientific evidence, and to continuously improve patient care based on constant self-evaluation and life-long learning. Fellows are expected to develop skills and habits to be able to locate, appraise, and assimilate evidence from scientific studies related to their patients’ health problems.


  • Perform a review of the scientific literature related to patients that are referred for evaluation and treatment of hypertension, discuss these findings with the clinic attending and other relevant members of the care team, and assimilate the findings into the care of the patient.
  • Participate in the education of patients, families, students, and other health professionals, as documented by evaluations of a fellow’s professional attributes and teaching abilities via systematic performance evaluations submitted by attendings and students.
  • Through the continuity design of the clinic experience, the fellow will develop skills and habits required for serial re-assessment of patients and their conditions, with the opportunity to continually reassess, self-evaluate, and assimilate new scientific evidence into clinical care.

Interpersonal and Communication Skills

Fellows must demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in the effective exchange of information and teaming with patients, their families, and professional associates. 


  • Communicate effectively with patients and families across a broad range of socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Fellows will learn to “connect” with patients of differing backgrounds.
  • Communicate effectively with physicians, other health professionals, and health related agencies.