Mental Health Toolbox
Improving Access Through Information
Top 10 Most Common Types of Depression
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Also known as unipolar or clinical depression, is characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness or a lack of interest in outside stimuli.
Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)
A long-term form of depression that lasts for years and can interfere with daily life, work, and relationships. People with dysthymia often find it difficult to be happy even on typically joyous occasions.
Manic depression, or bipolar disorder
A mental health condition that causes extreme fluctuations in mood and changes in energy, thinking, behavior, and sleep. With manic depression, you don’t just feel “down in the dumps;” your depressive state may lead to suicidal thoughts that change over to feelings of euphoria and endless energy. These extreme mood swings can occur more frequently–such as every week–or show up sporadically–maybe just twice a year.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
A type of depression related to the change of season. People who suffer from SAD notice symptoms beginning and ending at about the same times each year. Symptoms of depression, such as hopelessness, fatigue, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities, start out mild and progress to be more severe as the weeks go on.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
A cyclic, hormone-based mood disorder, commonly considered a severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). While up to 85% of women experience PMS, only around 5% of women are diagnosed with PMDD, according to a study in the American Journal of Psychiatry. While the core symptoms of PMDD relate to depressed mood and anxiety, behavioral and physical symptoms also occur.
Sad feelings and crying bouts that follow childbirth are known as the “baby blues.” The baby blues are common and tend to decrease within a week or two. This type of sadness is often attributed to the dramatic hormonal changes that follow childbirth. Around one in seven women will experience something more extreme than the typical baby blues.
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, around 20 percent of people with depression have episodes so severe that they develop psychotic symptoms. A diagnosis of major depressive disorder with psychotic features may be given to individuals suffering from a combination of the symptoms of depression and psychosis: a mental state characterized by disorganized thinking or behavior; false beliefs, known as delusions, or false sights or sounds, known as hallucinations.
Otherwise known as reactive depression or adjustment disorder, is a short-term, stress-related type of depression. It can develop after a person experiences a traumatic event or a series of changes to their everyday life.
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)
A type of depressive disorder, as children diagnosed with DMDD struggle to regulate their moods and emotions in an age-appropriate way. As a result, children with DMDD exhibit frequent temper outbursts in response to frustration, either verbally or behaviorally. In between outbursts, they experience chronic, persistent irritability.
Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)
Treatment-resistant depression is not an official clinical diagnosis. Rather, it is a term used to describe situations in which a person with depression doesn’t feel better, even after going through all of the first line treatments (including medication and psychotherapy). Unfortunately, treatment-resistant depression is all-too-common; around 30% of people with depression don’t respond to initial treatment.
2022 Mental Health Toolkits
Important Tools for Mental Health
Here at the CDRC, we believe that every individual can have their own personal library of resources, and methods for improving their mental wellness. Below are a few of the methods discussed in our pioneering resilience-based program offered to students and youth in schools. Learn more about our program here.
Define Your Superpower
Understanding what makes you shine is a powerful way to address times when you feel challenged.
Practice Relaxation Response Exercises
There are many relaxation exercises to help you mediate a stressful situation, or feelings of anxiety.
Outline Your Highest Priority Values
Highlighting those things that are most important to you in life provides an important roadmap for overcoming life's roadbocks.
Identify Supportive People in Your Life
Friends, teachers, family members - these are all resources to connect with, especially in times of need.
Motivate Yourself Through Monitoring
Self-monitoring involves keeping a personal record of your moods and behaviors in order to track trends over time. This allows individuals to observe how their mental state changes and provides concrete data to show how they are progressing, and which symptom profiles need attention. We created a web-based mental health self-monitoring tool with you in mind. Learn more here.
Beginning the conversation about mental health and resilience with youth is a critical part of our vision. Learn more about us here.
Building resilience in mental health involves sharing the knowledge and tools necessary for growth. Learn more about our Blue Steel program here.
Engaging teens about depression and suicide, and building important communication tools is a critical component of our YAM program. Learn more about YAM here.
For information about CDRC programs, research, or activities, contact us at CDRC@UTSouthwestern.edu.