Surgery and Live Imaging Technology


The Wert laboratory uses specialized molecular surgery techniques for the creation of mouse models to study human retinal degenerative disease. These include in utero transplantation of human multipotent cells into post-gastrulation mouse embryos, as well as subretinal or intravitreal injections of gene therapy vectors, viruses or cells into the perinatal or adult mouse eye.

  • Wert KJ, Skeie JM, Davis RJ, Tsang SH, Mahajan VB. (2012) Subretinal injection of gene therapy vectors and stem cells into the perinatal mouse eye. J. Vis. Exp. 69; pii: 4286.
  • Wert KJ and VB Mahajan. (2019) In vivo expression of mutant calpains in the eye using lentivirus. Methods Mol Biol 1915:233-247. 

Subretinal and Intravitreal Injections

Subretinal injection into the perinatal mouse eye.

In utero Injections into Post-gastrulation Embryos

Human multipotent cells (green) transplanted into a mouse embryo.
Human multipotent cells (green) transplanted into a mouse embryo via in utero injection at embryonic day 8.5. 
Neural crest cell chimeric mice.
Chimeric mouse created from an in utero injection of neural crest cells into the embryonic day 8.5 post-gastrulation embryo.


Live Imaging

Along with specialized surgical skills, the Wert laboratory utilizes live imaging technology to monitor the mouse eye and retina over time. This includes electroretinography (ERG), autofluorescence (AF) and infrared (IR) fundus imaging, angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

ElectroretinographyAngiography of the mouse eye.
Electroretinography (ERG) and Angiography of the mouse eye.