Klotho Levels in Human Vena Caval Blood
We will recruit patients who are undergoing routine right heart catheterization via femoral vein as part of their clinical care. at the end of the procedure as the catheter is being withdrawn from the heart, two blood samples will be drawn from the supra-renal and infra-renal vena cava for measurement of Klotho levels.
We expect three possible outcomes of the blood Klotho levels.
Supra-renal [Greater Than] infra-renal Kidney is secreting Klotho into the blood
Supra-renal [Less Than] infra-renal Kidney is removing Klotho from the blood
Supra-renal [?] infra-renal a combination of the above two in equal magnitude or the kidney is neutral to Klotho
Any subjects over the age of 18 who have clinical indications and are undergoing right heart catheterization who are capable and willing to give informed consent.