Phase V: Confirmatory Studies

Researchers applied the novel technology to a representative sample of Gulf War-era veterans (2007-2015).

A. U.S. Military Health Survey in a large representative sample of Gulf War-era veterans [References]

B. Clinical neurological studies demonstrating autonomic dysfunction in ill veterans [References]

C. Cholinergic-challenge experiment showing abnormal cholinergic brain function [References]

D. Neuroimaging studies showing objective brain abnormalities in ill veterans

  1. Arterial spin labeling and SPECT neuroimaging (Briggs/Li)
  2. Magnetic resonance spectoscopy (MRS) (Briggs/Cheshkov) [References]
  3. Diffusion tensor imaging (McColl)
  4. Quantitative sensory fMRI (Gopinath)
  5. Functional connectivity fMRI (Gopinath)
  6. Emotional memory circuits fMRI (Kraut/Ringe)
  7. Material-specific encoding memory fMRI (Ringe)
  8. Attention and executive function fMRI (Rypma)
  9. Word retrieval fMRI (Hart)
  10. Auditory and visual memory fMRI (Odegard)
  11. Complex verbal functions fMRI (Crosson)

E. EEG studies show objective brain abnormalities in ill veterans

  1. Resting EEG
  2. Functional EEG of hyperarousal
  3. Functional EEG with visual threat to differentiate from PTSD

F. Neuropsychological testing (Hart/Cullum)

Phase V was funded by an IDIQ research contract from the Department of Veterans Affairs.