Phase IV: Pilot Studies

Researchers used the Seabees sample to validate new technology (2007–2008).

A. Cholinergic-challenge experiment showing abnormal cholinergic brain function [References]

B. Neuroimaging studies showing objective brain abnormalities in ill veterans

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (Briggs/Cheshkov) [References]
  2. Diffusion tensor imaging (McColl) [References]
  3. Quantitative sensory fMRI (Gopinath) [References]
  4. Functional connectivity fMRI (Gopinath) [References]
  5. Emotional memory circuits fMRI (Kraut/Ringe)
  6. Material-specific encoding memory fMRI (Ringe)
  7. Attention and executive function fMRI (Rypma)
  8. Word retrieval fMRI (Hart) [References]
  9. Auditory and visual memory fMRI (Odegard) [References]
  10. Complex verbal functions fMRI (Crosson) [References]

C. EEG studies showing objective brain abnormalities in ill veterans (Ferree/Hart)

  1. Resting EEG
  2. Functional EEG of response inhibition (continuous performance test) [References]
  3. Functional EEG of hyperarousal [References]
  4. Functional EEG with visual threat to differentiate from PTSD

D. Neuropsychological testing (Hart/Cullum)

E. Overview presentations on objective tests in Gulf War illness [References]

Phase IV was funded by an IDIQ research contract from the Department of Veterans Affairs.