Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project)

A. SENIC Project Methods

  1. Haley RW, Quade D, Freeman HE, Bennett JV, et al. Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project): Summary of study design. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5);472‑85.
  2. Quade D, Culver DH, Haley RW, et al. The SENIC sampling process: Design for choosing hospitals and patients and results of sample selection. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):486-502.
  3. Quade D, Lachenbruch PA, Whaley FS, McClish DK, Haley RW. Effects of misclassifications on statistical inferences in epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):503‑15.
  4. Haley RW, Schaberg DR, McClish DK, et al. The accuracy of retrospetive chart review in measuring nosocomial infection rates: Results of validation studies in pilot hospitals. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):516-533.
  5. Whaley FS, Quade D, and Haley RW. Effects of method error on the power of a statistical test: Implications of imperfect sensitivity and specificity in retrospective chart review. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):534‑42.
  6. Haley RW, Hooton TM, Schoenfelder JR, Crossley KB, Quade D. Effect of an infection surveillance and control program on the accuracy of retrospective chart review. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):543‑55.
  7. Hooton, TM, Haley RW, and Culver DH. A method for classifying patients according to their nosocomial infection risks. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):556‑73.
  8. Haley RW. Identification of infection surveillance and control interventions that have been effective in reducing nosocomial infection risks: The usefulness of a conceptual model. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1981;3:775‑80.

B. Primary results on the efficacy of hospital infection surveillance and control programs

  1. Haley RW, Culver DH, White JW, Morgan WM, Emori TG. The nationwide nosocomial infection rate: A new need for vital statistics. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;121:159‑67.
  2. Haley RW, Culver DH, Morgan WM, White JW, Emori TG, Hooton TM. Increased recognition of infectious diseases in U.S. hospitals through the increased use of diagnostic tests, 1970‑1976. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;121:168‑81.
  3. Haley RW, Culver DH, White JW, Morgan WM, Emori TG. The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;121:183‑205.
  4. Haley RW, Culver DH, White JW, Morgan WM, Emori TG. Identifying patients at high risk of surgical wound infection: A simple multivariate index of patient susceptibility and wound contamination. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;121:206‑15.
  5. Haley RW, Morgan WM, Culver DH, White JW, Emori TG, Mosser J, Hughes JM. Hospital infection control: Recent progress and opportunities under prospective payment.American Journal of Infection Control 1985;13:97‑108.

C. Basis for targeted surveillance

  1. Haley RW, Tenney JH, Lindsey JO, Garner JS, Bennett JV. How frequent are outbreaks of nosocomial infection in community hospitals? Infection Control 1985;6:233‑236.
  2. Haley RW. Surveillance By Objectives: A new priority‑directed approach to the control of  nosocomial infections. American Journal of Infection Control 1985;13:78‑89.
  3. Haley RW. Redesigning infection control programs for cost‑effectiveness (Editorial). Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. 1985; 7:161‑164.
  4. Haley RW. Managing Hospital Infection Control for Cost‑Effectiveness. Chicago: American Hospital Association Publishing Co., Inc., 1986.

D. Development of the first multivariate risk indexes

  1. Hooton, TM, Haley RW, and Culver DH. A method for classifying patients according to their nosocomial infection risks. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):556‑73.
  2. Haley RW, Hooton TM, Culver DH, et al. Nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals, 1975‑76: Estimated nationwide frequency by selected characteristics of patients. American Journal of Medicine 1981;70:947‑59.
  3. Hooton TM, Haley RW, Culver DH, et al. The joint associations of multiple risk factors with the occurrence of nosocomial infection. American Journal of Medicine 1981;70:960‑9.
  4. Haley RW. Nosocomial infections in surgical patients: Developing valid measures of intrinsic patient risk. American Journal of Medicine 1991; 91 (suppl 3B):145S-151S.
  5. Haley RW. Measuring the intrinsic risk of wound infection in surgical patients. Problems in General Surgery 1993; 10 (No. 3):396-417.

E. Historical development of infection surveillance and control programs in the U.S.

  1. Haley RW and Shachtman RH. The emergence of infection surveillance and control programs in U.S. hospitals: An assessment, l976. American Journal of Epidemiology 980;111(5):574‑91.
  2. Emori TG, Haley RW, and Stanley RC. The infection control nurse in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑1977: Characteristics of the position and its occupant. American Journal of Epidemiology 1980;111(5):592‑607.
  3. Haley RW. The "hospital epidemiologist" in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑l977: A description of the head of the infection surveillance and control program. IC Infection Control 1980;1(1):21‑32.
  4. Haley RW and Emori TG. The employee health service and infection control in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑1977: I. Screening procedures. Journal of the American Medical Association 1981;246(8):844‑47 
  5. Haley RW and Emori TG. The employee health service and infection control in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑1977: II. Managing employee illness. Journal of the American Medical Association 1981;246(9):962‑7 
  6. Mallison GF and Haley RW. Microbiologic sampling of the inanimate environment in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑77. American Journal of Medicine 1981;70:941‑6.
  7. Emori TG, Haley RW, and Garner JS. Techniques and uses of nosocomial infection surveillance in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑77. American Journal of Medicine 1981;70:933‑940.
  8. Brachman PS and Haley RW. Nosocomial infection control: Role of the hospital administrator. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1981;3:783‑4.
  9. Emori TG, Haley RW, Garner JS, Stanley RC, Culver DH, Raven BH, Freeman HE. Comparison of surveillance and control activities of infection control nurses and infection control laboratorians in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑1977. American Journal of Infection Control 1982;10:3‑16.
  10. Garner JS, Emori TG, Haley RW. Operating room practices for infection control in U.S. hospitals, 1976‑1977. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 1982;155:873‑80.
  11. Haley RW. The role of the infectious disease physician in hospital infection control. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 1987; 63:597‑604.

F. Evaluation of the social psychological bases of power in influence hospital practices

  1. Raven BH and Haley RW. Social influence in a medical context. In: Bickman L, editor. Applied Social Psychology Annual, Volume 1. Beverly Hills, CA:  Sage Publications, January, 1980: Chapter 10: 255-277.
  2. Raven BH, Freeman HE, Haley RW. Social science perspectives in hospital infection control. In: Contemporary Health Services‑‑Social Science Perspectives. Eds. AW Johnson, O Grusky, BH Raven. Auburn House Publishing Company, Boston. l982: 139‑175.
  3. Raven BH and Haley RW. Social influence, compliance, and hospital infection control. In:  Eiser JR, editor. Social Psychology & Behavioral Medicine. New York: Wiley & Sons, l982: 413-438

G. Costs of nosocomial infections and the cost-benefit of infection control

  1. Haley RW. Preliminary cost‑benefit analysis of hospital infection control programs (The SENIC Project). In: Proven and Unproven Methods in Hospital Infection Control: Proceedings of an International Workshop at Baiersbronn, West Germany, September 24‑25, 1977, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, 1978.
  2. Haley RW, Schaberg DR, Von Allmen SD, and McGowan JE. Estimating the extra charges and prolongation of hospitalization due to nosocomial infections: A comparison of methods. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1980;141(2):248‑57.
  3. Haley RW, Schaberg DR, Crossley KB, et al. Extra charges and prolongation of stay attributable to nosocomial infections: A prospective interhospital comparison. American Journal of Medicine 1981;70:51‑8.
  4. Pinner RW, Haley RW, Blumenstein BA, Schaberg DR, VonAllmen SD, McGowan JE Jr. High cost nosocomial infections. IC Infection Control 1982;3:143‑9.
  5. Haley RW. Cost‑benefit aspects of hospital infection surveillance. In: Evaluation and Management of Hospital Infections. Ed. VanFurth, R. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague/Boston/London, l982, pp. 230‑243.
  6. Haley RW. Measuring the cost of nosocomial infections: Methods for estimating the economic burden on hospitals. American Journal of Medicine 1991; 19 (suppl 3B): 32S-38S.
  7. Haley RW. Cost-benefit analysis of infection control programs. In: Hospital Infections. Ed. Bennett JV and Brachman PS. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 3rd edition. 1992. (Revised for Fourth Edition, 1998)

H. Role of understaffing and overcrowding in nosocomial infection

  1. Haley RW and Bregman DA. The role of understaffing and overcrowding in recurrent outbreaks of staphylococcal infection in a neonatal special care unit. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1982;145:875‑85.
  2. Haley RW, Cushion NB, Tenover FC, Bannerman TL, Dryer D, Ross J, Sanchez PJ, Siegel JD. Eradication of endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from a special care nursery. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171:614-624.

I. Emergence of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

  1. Haley RW, Hightower AW, Khabbaz RF, Thornsberry C, Martone WJ, Allen JR, Hughes JM. The emergence of methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in U.S. hospitals:  Possible role of the house staff‑patient transfer circuit. Annals of Internal Medicine 1982;97:297‑308.
  2. Haley RW. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Do we just have to live with it? Annals of Internal Medicine 1991;114:162-164.

J. Review articles

  1. Brachman PS, Dan BB, Haley RW, et al. Nosocomial surgical infections: Incidence and cost. Surgical Clinics of North America 1980;60:15‑25.
  2. Haley RW, Culver DH, Hooton TM et al. Progress report on the evaluation of the efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs. American Journal of Medicine 1981;70:971‑5.
  3. Haley RW. The epidemiology and prevention of nosocomial infections. In:  S.S. Block, ed. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1983.
  4. Haley RW, Garner JS, Simmons BP. A new approach to the isolation of hospitalized patients with infectious diseases: Alternative systems. Journal of Hospital Infection 1985;6:255‑259.
  5. Condon RE, Haley RW, Lee JT Jr, Meakins JL. Does infection control, control infections? Archives of Surgery 1988; 123:250‑256.
  6. Haley RW. The scientific basis for using surveillance and risk factor data to reduce nosocomial infection rates. Journal of Hospital Infection 1995;30 (suppl):3-14.